gAtO-nOtEs– Stopping Pedophile websites in Tor 4 LE
Dark web drugs site Silk Road knocked offline by hacker – http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/technology-22381046
From the IEEE report about “Trawling for Hidden Service” they explain as any network person knows that it take little more overhead to make a Tor connection than a regular Internet connection. (SSL-connections) That Tor-Relay will have to work harder and as more and more connections are made, Just like a DdoS attack but with a simple crawler we can bring down any Tor-Website from communicating with any new clients. The Tor-network has no load balance.
So a simple crawler looking for URL’s doing it’s work to gather information for a Tor search engine- Like I have – could accidentally play havoc on a Tor-websites -entry-relay —even silk road // no way pedro // so if we use enough of these crawlers we can stop people from getting to the website and they will have no clients.
Example for Law Enforcement:
Natural Spanking Website is Tor website- They have over 13,000 URL on their website – so that’s 13,000 pages of pedophile crap. If we launch 8 crawlers from different places to crawl this site’s 13,000 pages again and again and again – all at the same time coming from different directions. Tor has no load balance so the websites Guard-relays cannot keep all these connections up. The (-combine crawlers coming all at the same time-from all over the world ) will prevent new clients accessing the site. The site will be un-reachable. You know what Amazon ec2 VPS server would be a great choice for this test.
If we do this for about 2-3 weeks – the word will go out that the site is down – The site will have to deploy and advertise new URL’S. if we also plan a campaign of propaganda news-feeds about that website and spread it on Twitter and get all the groups that hate pedophiles (anonymous and other groups). We can bring down any pedophile site this way.
IEEE 2013 -Trawling for Tor- Hidden Service – http://www.ieee-security.org/TC/SP2013/papers/4977a080.pdf
From this paper we find new ways to go after the websites and find the IP and geo-location, we can take over the entry-guard-relays and get statistics and usage and maybe clients of the website.
- We have a way to get Tor-Websites stats- we have a method to measure the popularity of any hidden service without the consent of the hidden service operator.
- We will work on this way of stopping a Tor-website form operating -We show how connectivity to selected hidden services can be denied by impersonating all of their responsible hidden services directories.
- We will demonstrate a technique that allows one to harvest hidden service descriptors (and thus get a global picture of all hidden services in Tor) in approximately 2 days using only a modest amount of resources.
- We show how to reveal the guard nodes of a Tor hidden service.
- Harvest all known Tor-hiddens service-websites.
- We propose a large-scale opportunistic deanonymization attack, capable of revealing IP addresses of a significant fraction of Tor’s hidden services over a one year period of time.
Of course going after a website like this is only allowed by Law Enforcement – gAtO oUt
Cyber Women please stand Up
CSI creator launch a new Cybergeddon Yahoo Show GREAT –http://cybergeddon.yahoo.com
Pierluigi and gAtO met with Dare To Pass – CSI – Anthony e. Zuiker, Matthew Weinberg and Josh Cadwell to talk about the new Cyber sensation Cybergeddon in Yahoo. I never met any hollywood types but these guy’s were just dead set on making the show great, and real life. They met with Symantec/Norton folks but they were not prepared for Pierluigi’s charm and solid knowledge of what is in the deep dark web and a loco gAtO that has no rules or reason sometimes.
Let’s just say we where informative and entertaining and after the meeting Josh Cadwell CSI’s real geek -(producer, writer, director too) took the lead. I think this relationship will make the show more real, more believable and as they use real tools and how 2- of the black hackers they will be in a position to not just make a great entertainment show but also it may help other online people to become aware of the dangers of cyberspace. CSI broke new bounds and educated people to the cool science and how technology can be use for good things and help solve crimes. Cybergeddon is set to become another CSI but in cyber Space- About cyber Space— IMHO
gAtO does not even own a TV so I had no clue who CSI was- but these guy’s are really very smart, creative and played hardball when it comes to what they want. Anthony is solid TV Producer type, Matt is a cool genius and Josh has so much knowledge about Tor this that it made us feel comfortable, he is a techno class dude…he knows his technology.
This show is so different not just the content but by putting it on Yahoo they have over 50 million points as a distribution model. This is how smart movie executives are not fighting the Internet but they are embracing it and fixing it to make the model work. We all seen Kim DotCom and other pirate distribute content worldwide – movie guys saw this and said WOW we could keep the distribution cost down and get more views and that’s a big win, win for US the viewers and them the creators.
“I wanna be a Hackers” has become a new cool thing. The geek is becoming a superstar – where the football hero and the nerdy computer club president has similar status. This is new a turn for intelligence not just brute force – I’m one geek that got the beauty queen and so will others. Cybergeddon show’s that even the 4 eye nerd can become a person of power and respect – take the character “Rabbit” yeah I can say I know some hacker like him –
Give them a break guy::: I know you can’t hack everything in 15 keystrokes but they have a limited time – Viewer can have the concentration of a nat, so I will give them that and it has to be entertaining and Chloe the lady Hacker is so cool – I have a daughter that is a strong woman and can hack (a little ) but the role model this set’s up for women in technology is great –
I know of 3 cyber women (they are gonna kill me) C3nTuri0n ?@Centauri3 and ?? ?@7JGoldOrlando and Kandy- these are real live cyber queens that know their shit and are very intelligent, strong and vocal – they take no shit from anyone in cyberspace and sorry but that is cool. They dabble with SE, Bot-Nets and they know cyber security – I feel fortunate to know great ladies like this they teach me so much.. Thanks guy’s…
Cyber Women please stand Up
So my Gray hat goes out the CSI team in wanting to show such a good woman role model, this is a change and I seen it with Latino women shouting about TangoDown all over Latino countries – Women in cyberspace are gaining a lead – we men can sometimes communicate with grunts and get the message across (nOt)- I know this show can be great for equality in cyberspace.
I want to thank Lauren -Dare to Pass – Nicole – National Science Foundation for helping Pierluigi and gATO to have a chance to help in this project. el gAtO lOcO had fun talking about “The Deep Dark Web” (our Book) (available in Amazon) and security, Bitcoins market and the other fantastic cyber things we talked about.
Anthony called me up the next day and we talked about helping them on a new show about a cyber cop who dies and get’s re-born and goes out in the Dark Web to get the bad guys- I think the working title is “RESTART” it should be kinda cool. But hollywood types are all takers – pro bono- but they reap the rewards. I guess that gAtO will not be a famous star— gAtO OuT
gAtO lEaRn – On 01-01-213 we hear that Microsoft buys Skype and makes changes to allow Police surveillance. Then on 01-07-2013 we hear that a professor at the Warsaw University of Technology, Wojciech Mazurczyk, found a way to insert secret 70 bits of data and add secret information similar to steganography.
Lawful Intercept is what it’s called and we just heard punch – counter-punch from the government. I just posted about corporations and governments using offensive cyber weapons to fight crime, but this looks like just plain old spying on citizens like China, Iraq and Syria does. Skype is owned by Microsoft and we know that Word and other products have back doors for them to snoop and governments to use in criminal cases. I guess they do it the proper way and get a real FISA document to monitor us it’s citizens.
mEoW 12-30-2012 our re-elected President Obama signs FISA Warrantless Wiretapping Program. STOP – SAY WHAT. mEoW – Forget about gun control how about the privacy of citizens, are we becoming like China, Iraq and Syria the more I find out about this the crazier it becomes. I hate Skypes but now finding this out NO WAY DUDE-
I did a little digging and I found a document from the Straford hack from the LutzBoat crew and this has been on the play board for a long time. More and more governments that play nice with the America and Microsoft will have to live with the fact that they are spying on us, the people. I voted for Obama but I’m pretty sure any president would want to be able to justify this abuse of power to monitor it’s citizens, what get’s me is we scream and yell when other countries do it but here we are doing to ourselves and nobody is talking about this- Hay press wake up. I have nothing to hide but if you do you have been warned – enjoy your government spying on you behind your back – gAtO oUt
IT security continues to be the greatest challenge facing government CIOs worldwide. Most experts agree that governments require stronger partnerships between the public and private sectors for both better protection of government IT systems from intruders and for greater visibility into operators’ network traffic to fight crime. However, government systems and intelligence activities constitute a very sensitive information environment. Governments must proceed with caution when forming technology partnerships for hardening their IT network security. Melissa E. Hathaway, who in February 2009 was named to be the Obama Administration’s top cyber security official, points out how
Criminals, predators and hackers now use chats, blogs, webmail and Internet applications such as online gaming and file-sharing sites to hide their communications.
Qosmos provides law enforcement agencies with a powerful solution to identify a target using multiple virtual IDs and intercept all related IP- based communications. Any trigger, such as a “user login = target” initiates intercept of all IP traffic related to the “target.”
Example of recognized applications and protocols
VoIP Email (POP, SMTP)
Webmail (Gmail, Hotmail, Live Mail, SquirrelMail, Yahoo mail, etc.)
Instant Messaging (Aim, SNM, Skype, Yahoo, Google Talk, QQ, Maktoob, Paltalk, etc.)
Online games (World of Warcraft)
Online classified ads
Audio/Video (H.323, SIP, MGCP, RTP, RTCP, MMSE, RTSP, SHOUTcast, Yahoo Video,
MSN Video, SCCP, etc.)
Web applications (Dailymotion, Google, eBay, Google Earth, HTTP, MySpace, Wikipedia,
Example of information extracted
Caller, phone number, called party, duration of call
Webmail login, email address, sender, receiver, subject matter, attached documents
Instant messaging sender, receiver, contact lists and status
Forum login, IP address, MAC address, mobile ID (IMSI, IMEI)
Protocols identified even for unidirectional traffic (e.g. email by satellite).
gAtO tHiNk – the monetary system is f%^k and so are we. My good friend Pierluigi and I have been busy putting together a new book – Digital Virtual Currency and Bitcoins – coming out in a week or so and the picture of the state of all currency is really in bad shape. Virtual currency is not new it is more a transactional system than currency but unlike PayPa, Visa, Mastercard with Bitcoins you can become a miner and create your own coins. check it out- https://blockchain.info/nodes-globe
I have include the table of content so you can see our approach to understanding what is happening and the war that global bankers ar wagging on this new system of currency. Why are they fighting it so hard because more people are beginning to see that a currency that is not control by global bankers and by the people and for the people is a better solution. Of course they are vilifying Bitcoins but as other systems have tried to get their teeth into this new worldwide currency Bitcoin come out on Top.
We hope that you will gain some knowledge from our newest venture into this mad, mad world of money- as they say “Follow the money” and we did but I can tell you the more I learned the madder I got that we have been tricked into thinking that the global bankers are the good guy. Facts is the world is in debt over 10 times over just on interest alone. The world owns more than we create – THE WORLD not a nation. and if look real hard 1% of the people control 40% of the wealth in this world. It is not a national issue it’s a world issue.
We are just cyber security professional but this has been an eye opener as we see the Monterey Market System as a sham to keep the people of the world in an ever ending debt -gAtO OuT
You can pre- order just send us a message-
Table of Contents
Digital Virtual Currency and Bitcoins
Digital virtual Currency Steps In:
1. What is Digital currency:
System D and technology
The Cyber Underground
Black market payment
Digital Currency -Trust Thru A Consensus 35
Where does Digital Currency get it’s value? 35
Trust Thru A Consensus 37
Cyber-War Digital -Vs- Global Currency 39
Cyber Death Of The Banking Industry 42
Those that control the quantity of currency have all the power. 42
Cyber Fixed Rate Exchange 2012 43
System D- Bitcoin’s Underground Economy 47
Digital Currency and Policy Makers 50
American Express Gamer Digital Virtual Currency 50
Facebook Credits 50
Google Bucks 51
How a bit coin Transaction Works: 53
Iran and Bitcoins: 53
2. Who uses Digital Currency 55
Bitcoin -Vs- Evil Global Bankers 55
Credit Cards 2 BTC-Bitcoin – BTC-Bitcoin 2 Credit Cards 55
Case Study Black Market Silk Road 57
Money Laundering in -The Digital Virtual World- 63
DC -Digital Currency – Launder CASH to Bitcoins 64
USD (Major banks, 7-11, Walmart, CVS) 64
Bitcoins cannot be traced back to the Owner 65
Happy Satoshi Nakamoto -Bitcoin- Day Nov 1 67
money $$ with – NO GOVERNMENT – NO BANKS 67
Underground Financial Networks 69
Reloadable Debit Cards – Basics 69
Western Union /MoneyGrams Basics 71
E-currency Basics 73
Trust Networks Basic 76
Borrowed Bank Accounts / Underground ATM cards 77
Mule Networks 78
Global Bankers Fear Bitcoins 79
European Central Bank report October 2012 report: 81
Secure Bitcoin Trading Online 84
Credit Cards 2 BTC-Bitcoin – BTC-Bitcoin 2 Credit Cards 84
Creating a secure identity: 85
Setting up OpenPGP email 86
Use Bitcoin-OTC 87
Using the Web-Of-Trust 87
Use an escrow 88
3. Digital Currency Financial Stuff 89
Bitcoin and Forex Trading 89
But really let’s take a look at FNIB – and Bit4X – 90
Bit4X – the new kid on the block – 90
Digital Currency 92
Top Ten Bitcoin Financial Charts 92
Virtual Currency Schemas
Virtual Currencies and banking, disaster or opportunity? 98
Price stability 99
Risks to financial stability 99
Risks to payment system stability 100
Bitcoin Still Up 137% YTD 2012 102
Geek Stuff – API to Bitcoin Block 103
Buying bitcoins 104
Major Exchanges 104
Exchanges are listed in alphabetical order. 104
Fixed Rate Exchanges & Others 118
Direct / Bulk Buying 123
Other Financial Services 123
Physical Bitcoins 124
4. Legality of Digital Currency 125
Bitcoins entities and possible legal responsibilities 125
Law enforcement and financial institutions against bitcoins 127
Legality of Bitcoins-Digital Currency? 130
Virtual Currency Real or Not 130
2012 timeline of the legality of Bitcoins around the world: 133
5. Governments and Digital Currency 142
Government -Vs- Bitcoin Anonymity 142
Canadian Mintchip And Bitcoins -Whats Up 147
The MintChip System 148
Hosted MintChip (Cloud Account) 148
Transactions-Sender and Receiver 149
MintChip Value 149
The MintChip – Value Creation 150
The MintChip – Security Overview 151
6. Business and Digital Currency 152
Merchant Tools for Digital Virtual Currency 152
A basic overview of the Payment Gateway follows 153
List of Features and Advantages 153
Mt.Gox “Pay Now” Button 154
Now supporting Magento! 154
Mt.Gox instant Merchant API 155
7. Cyber Crime Digital Currency 156
Cyber Crime Digital Currency 156
Cybercrime and Anonymous Cyber Economy 158
Impact of digital currency schema on financial ecosystem 158
Digital currency schemas 160
Money laundering 165
Theft of digital currency 170
Malware, the new generation of digital robbers 174
Bitcoin Botnet Mining 176
Deep Web, Botnet and Bitcoin mining … a dangerous mix 183
Counterfeit digital currency and double spending attacks 190
A race attack 192
The Finney attack 192
Bitcon and money laundering 194
Simple scenarios for money laundering 196
How To- Digital Money Laundering 199
Digital Currency ExchangeExchangers 2010 202
8. Bitcoin and Digital Virtual Currency 204
Get a Bitcoin Wallet and Make FREE-BitCoins Yourself 123 204
My Mining Machine 205
Bitcoin Miners Pools and how it works – 206
Bitcoin Wallet 210
Who, What and Where is a Bitcoin Wallet? 210
Bitcoin Qt 211
The beginning of the Bitcoin question 214
What is the Bitcoin Distribution Network? 214
Analysis of the model 216
The model 216
How does Bitcoin work? 218
Bitcoin exchange operates as a bank 222
Welcome to the Dot-BIT project 226
Current Miners 228
OZCoin – http://ozco.in 228
How Anonymous is Bitcoin? 231
What Users Can Do To Increase Anonymity 231
Bitcoin Mining Scam 233
The Bitcoin Miner Scam 234
Bitcoin Scam -How does it work? 235
Satoshi Nakamoto, the manhunt 238
Who developed Bitcoin Virtual Currency Schema? 240
9. Future of Digital Currency 246
Bitcoin and Digital Currency in the New World 246
Dominate The Future With Bitcoin 248
10. Geek Stuff Digital Currency tools and tricks 256
Address Tags 256
What Are Address Tags? 256
gATO Mining Rig – Information 258
ATI Radeon HD 4670: 259
Bitcoin Miner for Websites 260
Quick Start Guide to add the Miner to your website 260
Explaining the Miner to your visitors 261
Advanced Usage 263
gAtO ThInK –Bitcoin is fast becoming the new payment system of the cyber revolution. Just like Paypal it became a new virtual currency where anyone can stash their money and receive and make payment (a digital Bank). Notice that I did not say currency, why because it just like Paypal and we don’t call then a currency?
PayPal enables any business or consumer with an email address to securely, conveniently, and cost-effectively send and receive payment online. Now Bitcoin is doing the same thing but with a digital encrypted wallet, low transaction fees and I can even keep it in my smart phone or device and used it anywhere I need it. What’s the difference is my question why have the status-quo labels Bitcoins evil, because the underground uses it, no because the bankers have not figured out how to make money on it. The Central Europe Bank in charge of the EURO is already looking into Bitcoin Fractional Reserve Banking rates.
So they say that Bitcoins and other digital virtual currencies are evil and used by criminals. Pay pal is being used by millions of cyber criminals everyday so is Visa, Mastercard and SEPA and SWIFT. So why don’t we go after them, maybe gAtO is dumb but we should go after the criminals not the currency. When they counterfeit paper money we trash the paper but we go after the criminals. Thats why I don’t understand the reason to vilified a process, a system that works, is secure encrypted and safe, it can’t be counterfeited, they can’t double spend it. The only conclusion after many months of research is simple the bankers cannot control it and lose power.
The 1% the plutocrats of the world control all the currency and transaction system. They have sold us the fairytale that they are protecting us the consumers, the people. The financial people all tell us that they do everything in their power to protect us when in fact all they care is about you in debt and there profits and bonus checks. Every corporation is under law to provide the maximum profit to their shareholders, they will announce massive layoffs of people and their stock prices rise every time they do that.
Where are the companies that care about the people they employ, where are the companies that really help the community where they are. We hear about offshoring and using slave labor at Apple manufacturing plants and then we hear about 6-8 hour lines to purchase those same product. I want to blame the hipsters for wanting their new toys from child labor camps then asking if the organics vegetables are pure without pesticides. But I type away on my Mac so I’m just as guilty as anyone else.
Digital currency / transaction systems- Bitcoins-BTC – Liberty Reserves – WebMoney-WMZ – LiqPay – QIWI – PayPal – OKPay – Payza/AlertPay – Yandex – UKash vouchers – SEPA bank transfer.
It’s the current or existing state of affairs that the financial people want to protect they hate this change because they cannot control it. They know the loop-holes and how to hide their fortunes and something like a Bitcoin is a shot heard around the world and you know what people are listening -gAtO OuT.
gAtO gOt –Questions -Virtual Currency Real or Not- Reward Point, or bonus dollars and other forms of digital virtual currencies are normal for credit cards, online game sites, social networks and other specialty merchants and websites it all about true and branding. This new revenue stream is something that merchants are becoming aware of without knowing or understanding the legal aspects of this new digital currency world.
How does digital currency work in governments or does it – is it tax free, can I take campaign contributions with Bitcoins?
There are federal laws about digital currencies (gift cards) that impose inactivity fees, refunds and unused currency to states or regulatory statue in different states, now apply this to the global online stage. Then throw in the 2009 Credit Card Accountability Responsibility and Disclosure Act and the state and federal gift certificate taxes and were do Bitcoins and others fit in. This could be a big financial mistake for budget starve cities, states and countries it’s a worldwide problems.
So how does a merchant handle Digital currency if they decide to accept it for legal goods and service. For example My Book is for sale on my website using Mt.Gox BTC-Bitcoins – So how do I report my Bitcoins Sales 1.8 BTC so how does the Tax man handle the BTC-Bitcoin transaction?? If they accept Bitcoins then they are legal tender as long as I show sales and pay my Tax they now become legal tender by the State, and federal governments??? Right or is Bitcoin just like a Cash sales??? – These are the questions that need answers today, not tomorrow. I would think that governments may be losing revenue if they don’t think about how to handle virtual currencies transactions and incorporate them into the grand scheme of things (also known as red tape).
As smartphones and mobile pad devices increases worldwide more and more global customers are jumping on board. In the Asian gaming world it’s unstoppable people cannot not stop the online addiction and at a such a cheap price people in far away places are getting connected and this new market is a gem for corporations worldwide and e-currencies of any kind will be the new norm. This Jump in mobil devices and games alone will give digital currencies a gigantic boost. These new inexpensive mobile devices are taking farmers in remote villages and bringing them to our modern society very quickly.
Mobile devices are going worldwide today reaching the remotes corners of civilization and connecting everyone. And they want to spend $$$$$- money- $$$$$
This new mobile computer platform is changing the social and financial aspect of the worldwide landscape. All digital currencies that users accept in and believe in will be accepted. Merchants cry —I don’t care how you pay me as long as you pay me. The privacy aspect of this new currency is another thing that makes this very attractive. When anyone (governments/hackers) can pull your bank records and see every transaction you made.
They know everything every transaction? do they ? -did you know that with Bitcoins all transactions are visible – so we all know someone paid 1.2 BTC and transferred it to wallet_X. You can create a new -alias-wallet for every transaction and this way nobody will ever see your real wallet number. We can hide the wallets, encrypt it, back it up in paper, we can have many wallets and change them so keeping your transactions private is free it comes with the Bitcoin protocol. This is why governments say that terrorist use Bitcoins and other digital currencies to do their evil business,-NAW- well a suitcase full of CASH does the same thing and without and exchange rate to transfer it to my fiat currency… so that fear tactic does not work.. next
Consumers and merchants demand and acceptance of new digital currency has begun and the “jeane is out of the bottle”. These new digital virtual currencies can have very positive aspects in terms of financial innovation and the provision of additional payment alternatives for consumers and that is real competition.
Japans Moba-coins are a fine example: “While popular gambling-style kompu gatcha titles — in which users pay for coins to win prizes — are being eradicated from Japan, DeNA notes that its Moba-coin virtual currency was nonetheless used in a record $689 million worth of transactions in the country”. this revenue stream is only from 40-50 million users imagine when we all hop on this bandwagon.
There are many examples of others developing virtual currencies for gaming: NHN Japan offers a global gaming virtual currency called Line Coins; KakaoTalk in Korea offer virtual currencies called Chocos; and Tencent’s Q-Bi in China is firmly entrenched as a virtual currency. All of these are driven by mobile internet gaming services and the real killer will be when the major payments processors get into the virtual payments space.
The legality of Bitcoins have been debated all year long around the world -France, UK, Brazil, United Sates, California, New Hamshire, New York City, Germany, Finland, Italy and even Franklin, TN, USA.
As the price of Bitcoins hovers around $13-14-USD from a low of $4.5-USD this summer. It has attracted the interest of Forex and other players. With the European Central Bank (they control the EURO) report on Bitcoins to be a real thing are getting serious. Then a month later Bitcoin-Central ( French company, Paymium ) becomes the first Bitcoin Bank to carry out functions of payment service provider like PayPal and Dwolla unit of currency. Remember Bitcoin was built to operate completely outside the influence of governments and financial institutions but now Bitcoin is a financial institution.
Whether Bitcoin takes off or not is not the question, some virtual currencies is going to explode thanks to merchants, consumers, in-app gaming via social media and things that have not been created so far. You may disagree, but the aggregation of large amounts of small payments is effectively building a virtual currency system. go to https://blockchain.info and watch the transactions live, check out the “Bitcoin Top100 Recent Transaction”, I seen 124k, 150k 100 times in 1 hour-/ of course trying to track the wallets down to and IP is kinda impossible but mistakes can happen. https://blockchain.info/largest-recent-transactions
As we are seeing in New Hampshire allowance to take Bitcoin for campaign contributions put’s Bitcoins directly in the U.S bulls-eye. After this latest presidential election cycle here in American we saw that money is the language of politics and Bitcoins will play a role in our next presidential race 4 years away. Oh did I mention that Bitcoin is only 4 years old on Jan 9. 2013 imagine what the virtual digital currency and Bitcoins will look like in 2016. So are Bitcoins sales like a cash type transactions for governments and are they legal. I think that it’s still in debate but governments running deficits should allow any currency that brings in taxes to the coffers. Are Bitcoins Legal – stay tuned -gAtO OuT
Bitcoinica Rise and Fall from grace:
Superior Court of California, County of San Francisco
Case Number: CGC-12-522983
Title: BRIAN CARTMELL et al VS. BITCOINICA LP, ALSO KNOWN AS BITCOINICA et al
Cause of Action: CONTRACT/WARRANTY
Generated: Dec-18-2012 6:32 pm PST